Modern meditation music in the 20th century began when composers such as John Cage, Stuart Dempster, Pauline Oliveros, Terry Riley, La Monte Young and Lawrence Ballbegan to combine meditation techniques and concepts, and music. Specific works include Tony Scott’s Music for Zen Meditation (1964), Karlheinz Stockhausen’s Inori (1974),Mantra (1970), Hymnen (1966–67), Stimmung (1968), and Aus den sieben Tagen (1968), Olivier Messiaen’s Quartet for the End of Time (1941), and Ben Johnston, whoseVisions and Spells (a realization of Vigil (1976)), requires a meditation period prior to performance. R. Murray Schafer’s concepts of clairaudience (clean hearing) as well as the ones found in his The Tuning of the World (1977) are meditative (Von Gunden 1983, 103–104).
Stockhausen describes Aus den sieben Tagen as “intuitive music” and in the piece “Es” from this cycle the performers are instructed to play only when not thinking or in a state of nonthinking (Von Gunden asserts that this is contradictory and should be “think about your playing”). John Cage was influenced by Zen and pieces such as Imaginary LandscapeNo. 4 for twelve radios are “meditations that measure the passing of time” (Von Gunden 1983, 104).